Adoption of a Sedentary Lifestyle People moved to areas where their farms were s


Adoption of a Sedentary Lifestyle
People moved to areas where their farms were s

Adoption of a Sedentary Lifestyle
People moved to areas where their farms were situated and settled there abandoning nomadism.
Division of Labour
People began to specialise in specific occupations. Some concentrated on farming, while others made implements.
Trade emerged as the people within various professions regularly exchanged their products for those that they lacked, e.g., pots could be exchanged for grains.
The areas where trade took place grew steadily in both size and population becoming urban centres. More and more people settled here due to their convenience, since they would not have to travel constantly to trade for supplies.
The craftsmen also set up their premises at these central locations as they did not have farms of their own. Examples are Ur, Nippur and Babylon.
Social Classes
The society began to be stratified as specific classes began to emerge as people developed various measures and degrees of wealth and prestige. Thus, there were different levels of prestige for land owners, blacksmiths, potters, weavers, etc.
Development of Laws and Government
As the population increased, it became necessary to have regulations that would guide peoples’ activities so as to avoid conflict. Thus, laws were created. This was followed by the need for an authority to ensure that the laws were obeyed. This led to the formation of governments. It is from these governments that kingdoms and empires grew.
Invention of Writing
With increased food production came the need for record-keeping and thus writing was developed. This form of writing was called cuneiform.
Record keepers conversant with writing and mathematics were required and thus centres began to emerge where people, especially from the upper class, could be trained in literacy and numeracy. This was the origin of formal education.
Important inventions including the ox- drawn plough, the seed drill and the wheel were made.
Development of Religion
With time man began to perceive that there were other forces that determined the yields from his farm. The sunand other elements of the weather were recognised to have influence over harvests. As a result man began to beseech these to deal with him favourably. This he did by speaking to them and later by offering sacrifices to them. Thus, various gods emerged that were related to agriculture, e.g., Ninuria god of floods.



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